DIST – Digital Integration Story Telling Analyses of National Migration/Integration in Italy

DIST – Digital Integration Story Telling Analyses of National Migration/Integration in Italy

1. The School system in Italy: numbers, typology, distribution
In Italy, the education and training system is organized according to the principles of
subsidiarity and the autonomy of educational institutions. The State has the exclusive
legislative competence regarding the “general rules on education”, and the determination of
the essential levels of the services that must be guaranteed throughout the national territory
and the fundamental principles that the Regions must respect in the exercise of their
competences. . The Regions have concurrent legislative power in the field of education, and
exclusive in the field of vocational education and training. The schools have didactic,
organizational and research autonomy, experimentation and development. The educational
system is currently organized as follows: kindergarten for children aged 3 to 6; first cycle of
education, with a total duration of 8 years, divided into primary school (5 years) for children
aged 6 to 11; or first level secondary school (3 years duration) for pupils aged 11 to 14;
second cycle of education consisting of two types of courses: o Second level secondary school
of state competence, lasting 5 years, addressed to pupils aged 14 to 19. High schools,
technical institutes and professional institutes belong to this path; o three-year and four-year
vocational education and training (VET) courses of regional competence, aimed at young
people who have completed the first cycle of education. Post-secondary non-tertiary
education and training offering two different paths: post-qualification and post-diploma
courses; IFTS higher education and technical training. Higher education offered by
universities and by high artistic and musical education (Afam). Higher education is organized
in first, second and third cycle paths, based on the structure of the Bologna Process. The
compulsory education lasts 10 years, from 6 to 16 years of age, and includes the eight years of
the first cycle of education and the first two years of the second cycle (Ministerial Decree
139/2007). After completing the first cycle of education, the last two years of obligation (from
14 to 16 years of age), can be completed in secondary school, of State competence (high
schools, technical institutes and professional institutes), or in vocational education and
training pathways of regional competence (law 133/2008). Furthermore, all young people
must respect the right / duty of education and training for at least 12 years or, in any case,
until the achievement of a three-year professional qualification by the age of 18 (law
53/2003). Finally, the young people of 15 years can fulfill the last year of compulsory
education also through the apprenticeship contract, provided the necessary agreement between
Regions, Ministry of Labor, Ministry of Education and social partners (Law 183/2010). April
2013 April 2013 The educational obligation refers both to enrollment and to the frequency of
education levels included in the obligation, which can be fulfilled in state schools or in private
schools, but also through family education or in schools not equal, subject to certain
conditions; in the vocational education and training paths of regional competence, the
obligation (last two years) is fulfilled at the appropriate training agencies. The parents of the
pupils, or whoever takes their place, are responsible for the fulfillment of their children’s
education obligations, while supervision of the fulfillment of the obligation is provided by the
residing Municipalities and the school administrators of the schools in which the children are

enrolled. students. At the end of the period of compulsory education, in case of non-
continuation of the scholastic path, the student is given a declaration certifying the fulfillment

of the education obligation as well as the acquired skills, which constitute training credit for
the purpose of obtaining the qualification professional. After passing the final state
examination of upper secondary education, access to tertiary education courses (universities
and Afam). The specific admission conditions fall within the competence of the Ministry of
Education, University and Research (MIUR) and / or of the individual institutions of the

university sector and of the Afam sector. The three-year professional qualification or the four-
year professional diploma, obtained in the regional vocational education and training courses,

allow access to the so-called ‘second level’ professional or post-qualification / post-diploma
courses, which can also be accessed after graduation of upper secondary education. With the
same diploma you can also take courses in higher education and technical training (IFTS).
2. The state of migratory phenomena in Italy
The last twenty years have been decisive for the migration history in our country: foreigners
have in fact gone from 500 thousand to 5 million, definitely marking the transformation of
Italy from a country of emigration to a country of immigration. There is a specific reason:
Italy is placed in a European context that has seen a steady growth in the presence of
foreigners over the last twenty years, growth that has mainly involved the Mediterranean
countries, about which the public discourse is always focused on the issue of irregular
immigration. In this regard it is interesting to note that, in the early nineties of the last century,
foreigners who regularly and irregularly resided in our country were substantially in
numerical parity. The strong growth of the foreign presence that has characterized Italy since
1995, however, has marked a huge increase in citizens regularly residing while the share of
irregular citizens has remained stable over time, characterized by a wavering trend of growth
and degrowth at correspondence of the great sanatoria that have marked these years. Up to the
first half of the nineties it is possible to find a numerical balance even in the presence of men
and women; in fact, it has only been since 1995 that flows are characterized by the increase in
male immigration, and then returned to equilibrium in the first years of the millennium and
make it possible to overcome women over men since 2009 (thanks to the ever-increasing
request of “carers” but also the stabilization of the migration phenomenon and the consequent
increase in family reunification). As far as the nationality of origin is concerned, until the
early nineties there was a certain heterogeneity of presence, with the only significant
incidence related to the Moroccans. At the end of the 1990s, the Albanian presence was joined
by the Albanian presence which, in the course of five years, increased by 200% to become, in
2003, the first nationality in quantitative terms. A further turning point is realized starting
from 2007 when, following the entry of Romania into the EU, the high number of foreigners
coming from this country grows by more than 300% in five years, thus exceeding the
Albanian ones. Today, overall, Romanian, Albanian and Moroccan are more than 40% of
foreigners in Italy. The migration phenomenon has undergone a significant evolution over the
past twenty years. First indicator of this change is, first of all, the growth of foreign families.
This is confirmed by the fact that between 1993 and 2013, the nuclei composed of at least
four people grew by 864%. The growth of foreign children is accompanied, necessarily, by
the increase in the number of foreign minors. At the beginning of the nineties of last century,
in fact, these were little more than 100 thousand but they have been growing, tripling in 2001
(323 thousand), still almost doubling between 2001 and 2006 (627 thousand), up to challenge
quota 1 one million in 2013 (995 thousand). Added to this are foreigners born in Italy, tenfold
in the last 20 years (from 61 thousand to 648 thousand). The increase in the presence of
foreign minors, as is easily imagined, has also changed the face of the Italian school. In fact,

in the early nineties, pupils with non-Italian citizenship were few (in the 1991/1992 school
year there were in fact just under 26,000). Starting from 2000, the surveys begin to signal a
significant presence: 147 thousand in 2000, 300 thousand in 2003, over 600 thousand in 2008
up to 786 thousand students with non-Italian citizenship in 2013. From the demographic point
of view it is important to dwell on other two aspects of migration typical of our country:
internal migrations and emigration. In fact, Italy, considered a young country from the point
of view of immigration, has long been a protagonist both for large emigration and for internal
migration. Today it can be said that these three aspects (immigration, emigration and internal
migration) coexist. As far as internal migrations are concerned, this phenomenon, which has
reached its peak in the sixties and seventies, is still alive. Regions with positive attractiveness
indices (ie where the ratio between canceled and registered with the registry office is positive)
continue to be those of the North: Trentino has seen its attractiveness grow over the years,
while Lombardy has remained stable while Veneto and Emilia Romagna have seen their
values diminish above all in the last ten years. On the other hand, the South maintains
negative attractiveness indices, with Campania in the lead. With regard to Italian citizens
residing abroad, ie the phenomenon of emigration, there was a decline between 1990 and
2000, while in the following decade there was a recovery.
3. What are currently relevant migrant groups (at school)?
The ministerial reports on pupils with non-Italian citizenship (cni), published periodically
over the last twenty years, document that the foreign presence in the Italian school has grown
rapidly and exponentially, especially in the last decade. Suffice it to say that if in the 1992/93
school year there were just over 30 thousand, 0.3% of the total, in the 2013/14 school year
there were 802.785, or 9% of the total school population, 16.155 more than the previous year
(according to data made available by MIUR on 10/27/2014) in which there were 786.630. In a
few years Italy has reached the levels of presence of countries with the oldest immigration
traditions: without the contribution of foreigners, the number of members in Italian schools
would have been downsized over the last two decades.
From 2008/09 to today, however, there has been a slowdown in growth and this highlights the
transition of Italy to a phase of greater stabilization of migratory flows in schools. This
suggests that the school population could be significantly reduced in the near future.
4. Where do they come from?
The distribution of foreigners in the various school cycles increasingly reflects that of the
overall school population. Between 1992/93 and 2013/14 foreign students who have grown
the most in absolute values are in primary schools (going from 15.025 to 283.233, with an
incidence of 10%), followed by second-degree secondary school leavers. 4,090 to 182,181
foreign students, with an incidence of 6.8%), and first-degree students passing from 6,320 to
169,780, with an incidence of 9.6%) and finally to kindergartens, passing from 6,202 to
167,591, with an incidence of 10.1%). The analysis of the percentage distribution of foreign
students in the different scholastic levels in the last twenty years shows two important
transformations: on the one hand there was the relative loss of relevance of foreigners in
primary school, which received 47.4% in 1992/93 of total foreign students and 35.3% in
2013/14; on the other hand, the strong expansion of this group in secondary schools has been
observed (13.1% in 1992/93 and 22.7% in 2013/14), following the growth of the second
generations within the Italian school system, as well as the arrival of preadolescent and

adolescents for family reunification. From 2012/13 the distribution of foreign pupils reflects
more that of the overall school population: more numerous in the five-year courses (primary
and secondary second-grade), less in the three years of first grade secondary and in
kindergartens. This shows that Italy is moving into a more mature and stable migration cycle,
increasingly similar in the distribution of presences to Italian pupils. The increase in
attendance is increasingly due to foreign students born in Italy. If in the first decade the
increase in foreigners was mainly due to the entry into schools of children born abroad, more
recently the growth is linked to the expansion of the group of pupils born in Italy from
immigrant parents. From the first survey of this data (2007/08), foreign pupils born in Italy
have more than doubled from 199.119 units of the 2007/08 school year to 415.182 units in
2013/14, the year in which they represent the majority of pupils foreigners (51.7% of the
They express educational needs and needs differentiated from the first generations and require
new answers at the educational level, as well as re-proposing the knot of granting citizenship
to the children of immigrants who are born, grow up and study in Italy. The group that has
grown the most is that of primary school (+92.894 arriving to 182.315 pupils in the year
2013/2014, 64.4% of foreign children attending this school order) and then childhood
(+61.626, reaching 140.739 84% of foreigners). In parallel, foreign students born abroad have
decreased: from the school year 2007/08 to 2013/14 they have halved, representing 4.9% of
pupils with non-Italian citizenship, ie 30.825 students. The extreme diversification of origins
has always been a distinctive aspect of foreigners in the Italian school system: there are 196
citizenships, which have made people talk about the “world at school”.
This aspect has created considerable complications in the management of the plurality of
linguistic and cultural differences. The most numerous citizenships, since 2007/08, are always
the same: Romania (154.605 foreign students, + 150 thousand since 1995/96), Albania
(107.862, + 100 thousand), Morocco (101.167, + 93 thousand), China (39.204, + 36
thousand). Over time there is an unevenness of results between Italians and foreigners, with
foreigners having less academic success in the different schools’ orders, especially in second
grade secondary schools. However, in the period considered (2002/03 – 2012/13), the
difference between foreigners and Italians in promotion rates has been reduced: in a decade it
has passed (though always against foreigners) in primary schools from -4.3 % to -1.9%, in
junior high school from -8.6% to -6.1%, in secondary school from -13.1% to -10.8%. Even
foreign students who are late in school have progressively decreased, even if the problem still
exists: in the year 2013/14 almost half of foreign students in secondary schools in the first
degree (41.5%) and even three fifth of secondary school students (65.1%). This phenomenon,
not only due to repetition, seems to depend on the relegation in lower classes at the time of the
first insertion of births abroad, the irregular careers of the first generations and the problems
of the transition from one school system to another. A situation that should improve thanks to
the increase in second-generation students who attend Italian schools since childhood.

5. How to deal with integration at school…
On 19 February 2014, the Ministry of Education issued the “new guidelines for the reception
and integration of foreign students”, in which pupils with non-Italian citizenship are
recognized as an opportunity for change for the entire school. In reality, young people of
immigrant origin suffer from a specific school vulnerability, especially if they are first
generation, signaling for worse performance than the native population, greater probability of
early leaving of the education / training path, higher risks of becoming Neet (Not in
Education, Employment or Training): they represent a new weak band, at risk of school
failure, similar to those with low status. In this sense, immigration can be considered a
“mirror” of the critical points of our school system, in which there is the risk of not
guaranteeing equal opportunities to all disadvantaged students, be they Italians or foreigners.
The term “INTEGRATION” means the bilateral process of reciprocal adaptation of the
immigrant and the residents of a State, which has as its guiding idea the promotion of a
society free of discrimination and able to guarantee respect for the fundamental human rights .
Integration policies are designed to facilitate this process, facilitating it and fighting
difficulties and obstacles.
There is also a need to reconsider the topic of integration. The choice of the Turco-Napolitano
to focus on equality of rights must remain firm. However, social tensions and objective
shortcomings require first of all to rethink the architecture of the social state in some of its
aspects because, otherwise, equality of rights could mean in concrete equal dissatisfaction
with primary needs and exasperation of conflicts between natives and immigrants. Speaking
of integration there is then, beyond the equality of rights, the node of ad hoc interventions in
favor of migrants. For asylum seekers, effective paths of good social integration remain to be
defined, taking into account the difficulties of people who have arrived without a real
migration project, with dramatic experiences behind them. More generally, and in particular
for foreign workers and their family members, it will also be necessary to reconsider the
specific path of social integration designed by the Security Package with the provision of the
integration contract.
6. Inclusion into the educational system and language problems
The experience in these first years of using the tool has been quite positive, especially as
regards the language courses that actually gave the migrants something they would otherwise
have missed. However, comparing the Italian model with the German one, we see in our
relative poverty of resources and ambitions, evident even considering the differences with
respect to the other as to the number of hours of the planned language courses and the
expected levels of competence. The challenge for the coming years is to “take seriously” the
idea of the integration contract by enriching the paths also with the involvement of business
organizations that should be far-sighted enough to understand the importance of investing in
the training of migrants.
7. Are there groups of second/third generation migrants groups still facing
integrational thresholds?
In the report “Integration: Knowing, Measuring, Evaluating”, ISTAT certifies that 89.2% of
the teachers of the first level schools that have had immigrant students say they have found
linguistic deficiencies in boys, 77.7% difficulty of learning and 42.2% behavior problems.

Introduced the 21st March in Rome at the National Research Center (Cnr) the Istat research

on the scholastic and social integration of the second generations in Italy. An investigation co-
financed by the European Union and the Ministry of the Interior, in collaboration with the

Ministry of Education, University and Research (Miur), which shows us an updated mapping
of the young generations of immigrant children: who was born in Italy he feels Italian.
How many? How many born in Italy? How do they go to school and which friends attend
migrant children who live in the country today? It is a theme, that of “second” generations
(that is, minors who have foreign citizenship and live in Italy) who have been paying attention
for a long time: from politics, school and society. Only a few months ago the first partial
revision of the Italian “ius sanguinis”, now “temperate”, in the strenuous tension towards a
greater integration of this generation, forced even if born in Italy, to renew, to give just one
example, year after year, the residence permit until reaching the age of majority.
The ISTAT research, promoted with the European Union, the Ministry of the Interior and in
collaboration with the Ministry of Education, University and Research (Miur), finally delivers
updated data on which to reason. 1427 secondary schools (first and second degree) were taken
as a sample on the whole national territory with at least 5 foreign students. As provided for by
Italian law, children born in Italy from foreign parents were considered foreigners (as they do
not have Italian citizenship); those born abroad, and who have acquired Italian citizenship,
were naturally considered Italian.
Let’s see some significant data: the enrollments in secondary schools are in Italy 148 thousand
(first degree) and 157 thousand (second degree). On the total of the school population we
speak of an incidence of 9.2%. Children and children born in Italy (30.4%), arrived in Italy
before 6 years (23.5%), between 6 and 10 years (26.2%), aged 11 or over (19 , 9%). Just
under half of pupils born abroad are placed in the class corresponding to their age; almost
40% instead is registered in the previous class. Just under one in three states that they had to
repeat one or more school years, while those born in Italy have a share of repeating close to
the national average of Italians (around 15%).
The school trend? Half a point less, average, in Italian and mathematics (secondary schools)
for foreign students, with the necessary exceptions: for example, Chinese boys have higher
than average grades in mathematics. And when does the bell ring? 21.6% of foreign students
from secondary schools in the first degree state that they do not attend schoolmates, against
9.3% of Italian students. 13.8% of foreign students declare that they only attend foreign
students, Italian nationals or citizens with different nationalities from their own.
To the question: do you feel Italian? 38% answered yes; 33% feel foreign and 29% prefer not
to respond. Almost 53% of the boys arrived after the age of 10 and feel like a foreigner,
compared to 17% who say they feel Italian. Among those born in Italy the percentage is
reversed: 23.7% feel foreign, while 47.5% feel Italian.
Teachers and school managers have also been interviewed in the field of research, and there is
a greater awareness of the need to plan suitable strategies for a positive inclusion of foreign
students compared to the past (73.1% of managers). Among the teachers, 20.6% believe that
the level of integration is excellent and 70.7% is good. The increase in the number of foreign
students in the school is positively viewed by 74.4% of the teachers. The problematic aspects
highlighted are the linguistic difficulties (evidenced by 89.2% of secondary school teachers).
The future: almost half of both foreigners and Italians see their future in a foreign state and
not in Italy (46.5% of foreigners, 42.6% Italians). Regardless of citizenship, the country that

most attracts young people is the United States of America (31.9% among Italians, 30.1%
among foreigners); follow United Kingdom and Germany.
8. Other Integrational Thresholds: further groups that are systematically
discussed concerning their integration at school “Marcella Delle
Donne (Sociologist)”
Separated and far from the school complexes, school-age Roma minors are taken every
morning by minibuses run by cooperatives financed by the public body. Not everyone goes to
school and there are many absences. At school, Roma children usually arrive late. Reception
in the classroom is disturbing and marginalized. Even the safest live in discomfort. During
recreation, Roma children are isolated from other children, their sense of strangeness is
strong. They often cry, they are afraid of social workers, they think they take them away
(which is not uncommon).
From the point of view of learning, they have difficulty with the Italian language. Due to the
lack of space and light in the homes of the camps, the notebooks are left in school, so even the
quickest accumulate a gap in learning with Italian pupils. To avoid failures in primary
schools, Roma pupils are promoted with minimum levels of literacy. In middle school it is a
disaster. The gap becomes insurmountable. The difficulty of understanding the formalized
language of lectures and textbooks determines the decimation of the presences of male
schoolchildren, while the females already in marriageable age are lost. The boys who continue
the school, become accustomed to school margins, waiting to go to the CTP evening schools
before the age of eighteen, tolerated because they are Roma. The CTPs organize education
courses for immigrants. Racial conflicts arise between immigrants and Roma. The admixture
with Africans, for example, makes Roma hostile (“the niggers suck”); while Africans consider
the Roma, “dirty Gypsies”. Very often this conflict leads to scholastic abandonment by the
The field, as a self-referencing and separate microcosm, re-engulfs them, closes them the
possibility of opening up to innovative experiences and leads to the assumption of repetitive
models, often conjugated with crime. The hypothesis for which the field is functional to
generate a conspiratorial life for illegal activities is not peregrine.
Public sphere and civil society: difficulty of inclusion. Regarding the processes of integration
and inclusion in the majority society, despite the declarations of goodwill by public
institutions urged by the European Union (see the National Strategy for Inclusion of Roma,
Sinti and Travelers), the approach has not yet been overcome. to the so-called “nomad
emergency” from a security point of view. It is sufficient to consider the acceleration of
evictions without providing alternatives worthy of a civil society.
The nomad camp. In order to understand the situation of minors, the habits and lifestyles of
the Roma population, we must start from the context in which the Roma population is or is
forced to live: the so-called “nomad camps”, although the Roma are permanent for decades.

The field is a concluded and closed microcosm, a total self-referential social system. Self-
referentiality is maintained and accentuated by the fact that the fields are separate, far from

the majority society, both in a social and urban sense. The segregation in confined and
controlled areas make ghettos degraded, where the inhabitants are discriminated on an ethnic
basis and in this mode they are filed with photos and digital impressions extended to children

aged fourteen, not infrequently to the youngest, through police systems designed for the
organized crime. Here is a testimony of a Roma from a camp in Milan: “They arrived at half
past five, they surrounded the camp, they lit it with photoelectric cells, they came home by
house, caravan for caravans, they let us out, they threw us out, photographed the houses and
then our documents. They finished around half past seven. I believe that everyone should
know and understand what is happening: I am Italian, I am a Christian and I have been
registered according to my race. “(From Sons of the” fields “Ass. 21st July, 2014)
Now we must ask ourselves what perception can children have, if not fear, a sense of
powerlessness, estrangement and hostility towards the world of the majority society? If we
look at life in the “fields”, it surprises those who enter, the intensity of the relational life
among the inhabitants. In fact, there is no clear distinction between the private sphere and the
social sphere in Romany culture and ways of life. In the fields, participation in the various
activities of everyday life is intense, most of which are carried out in the open air. starting
with the preparation of meals; also for the anguish of the interior living spaces: caravans,
continents and barracks. Children perceived as the greatest wealth, live together in a
community area, (although degraded and infested by rats), free to roam the fields where they
are considered children of all. If the parents go to jail, the children are assisted by other
The Roma family and the female and male roles. The family is the fundamental cell of the
Roma world. By family we mean groupings of family cells belonging to the same group or
clan of families (for example Hamidovic, Salimanovic, Rustic, etc.) which also include one
hundred and more members inside. The male and female roles are rigid and defined by a
culture in which the male is the leader, the guide, the supreme identity. Women are in a
subordinate position, have the task of reproduction, the management of children’s education,
the care and management of household chores. In addition they are required to contribute to
the family economy with the mangel, begging, and often theft. The girls from the first years of
their life are prepared for the role established by the Roma culture and trained in mangel and
other. Marriage is contracted at an early age (usually for both spouses). It is not uncommon
for the bride’s family, in the marriage contract, often managed by their parents, to receive a
fee proportional to the bride’s ability to contribute to the family economy (through the
mangel). The Roma, when she marries, enters the family clan of her husband and is subjected
to the authority of her mother-in-law.
The early age of marriages involves a great prolificity, so much so that in the so-called camps
the underage population is numerically greater than the adult population. This is also due to
the low life expectancy of the people of the camps, due to the precarious conditions in which
they live. Furthermore, on women, I would like to highlight a profound change in the patterns
of life, which occurred with the massive entry into Roma camps of Roma populations from
Eastern Europe, especially from Romania. Another sacred principle in Rom culture has been
broken: the virginity of girls until marriage. Girls who are minors for the adolescent age in
which they are married. It is not uncommon to find very young Roma who prostitute
themselves. As for the males, these follow the footsteps of adults. Lately, in the impossibility
of practicing the traditional jobs such as ramai, canestrari, musicians, jousters, horse traders,
etc. and rejected in the works carried out by the majority society, they have invented
autonomous activities such as the collection and transportation of iron and markets.

In the collection and transport of iron were prevented because the means of transport was
seized due to lack of regulatory permits (in Turin and in Cosenza a compromise was
found).The markets, made with recycled products in the collection from the bins, in the
emptying of the cellars, were closed because some merchandise were stolen.Now we have to
ask ourselves: in the Porta Portese market in Rome, how many retailers offer goods of
dubious origin? Yet the Porta Portese market is there every Sunday, as always.
So the Rom remain the illicit activities, such as the use and the drug dealing that was a taboo
in the Roma world until the years two thousand; and the thefts perpetrated by children, just to
stay under the minors. In this regard, it is important to consider a particular aspect of the legal
status of undocumented Roma children. The majority born in Italy or arrived in childhood
following the wars in the former Yugoslavia, these minors, today even adults, are without
identity, in a condition of non-juridical and social existence. Think of the psychological
impact of these minor phantasms, the perception of a self without identity, without depth,
without a future. Think of the relational disorientation and the resulting frustration. This
condition, all Italian, must be addressed and healed as soon as possible. We are already
enormously late.
However, it is the whole system of the legislation on citizenship that is deficient in terms of
individual law and in defect with respect to the constitutional dictate. Significant what
happened to a refugee from the former Yugoslavia of Roma origin who would have had to
take advantage of the protection and assistance on the basis of the Decree Law n. 93
temporary protection. Being without documents and assistance, Sevla (fictitious name), the
young Rom ends up in a Roma camp in Florence where she finds hospitality. Surprise to steal
is taken to Solliciano prison. Sevla is pregnant, denounces her condition, but is not believed.
When she gives birth, in the cell they realize the gravity of the situation. Sevla is urgently
taken to the hospital in Florence. Once the umbilical cord has been cut off, the newborn is
immediately put up for adoption. It receives the name of Anna Meloni and becomes an Italian
A Florentine psychologist who deals with the great self-denial of the Roma question, having
come to know me, calls me desperate. I put all the energy into making the baby to her mother.
A parliamentary interpellation moves the situation. The newborn returns Sevla’s daughter. At
the same time he loses identity and citizenship and as a ghost follows his mother in prison.
Oral culture and integration difficulties. Regarding the integration of the Roma in the majority
society we must consider the specificity of the Rom culture basically oral. Role values and
behaviors are transmitted through psychological contagion and direct imitative learning, the
more rigid, the more separate, closed and self-referring the context is. It must be taken into
account that a substantial part, if not the majority, of the population of the camps is not
literate. The experience of volunteer workers in the Roma camps highlights one of the greatest
difficulties in the inclusion of the Roma in the majority society. . Oral culture does not include
knowing how to read and write. This implies the impossibility of understanding the
regulations and, more simply, the written indications, which are at the base of the social
system of the majority society. In the offices of local administrations, local health authorities,
hospitals, schools, not to mention the courts, the difficulties in communicating the Roma are
on the agenda. Not only that, not being able to read makes it difficult for Roma to know how
to manage urban place names

The lack of literacy is all the more serious when we consider the very high school mortality of
Roma children whose parents do not understand the importance of compulsory schooling.
The educational disadvantage of Roma children emerges from interviews with cultural
mediators working in Roma camps in 2014.
9. How are teachers supported to deal with migration/integration?
The profound transformations of Italian society and the challenges to be faced at European
and global level impose, today more than ever, a particular attention to the development of
cultural, social and human capital which represents the set of fundamental factors to sustain
and accelerate the growth of our country.
In this context, the education system is one of the strategic resources on which it is necessary
to invest, starting from the school staff. The training of school staff throughout their
professional life is a decisive factor for the improvement and innovation of the Italian
education system. The growth of the country (and its human capital) requires a quality
educational system, which looks to the professional development of school personnel – in line
with a renewed initial training – as a strategic objective, of international scope, taken up and
enhanced by the Ministry of Education,
Law 107/2015 intervenes to support this policy by proposing a new framework for the
professional development of all school operators. In particular, in-service training of teaching
staff, “mandatory, permanent and structural” (paragraph 124), is rethought through some
innovative steps: a. the principle of mandatory in-service training in a strategic and functional
logic for improvement; b. the definition and financing of a three-year national training plan; c.
the inclusion, in the three-year plan of the educational offer of each school, of the recognition
of training needs and the consequent training actions to be carried out; d. the assignment to
the teachers of a personal electronic card for training and cultural consumption; is. recognition
of participation in research and documentation of good practices, as criteria for enhancing and
encouraging teacher professionalism.
The Staff Training Plan, as an address document adopted by decree of the Minister of
Education, University and Research, defines the priorities and financial resources for the
three-year period 2016-2019 and outlines, starting from the school year 2016-2017
(considering also the training initiatives started in 2015-2016), a strategic and at the same time
operational framework to support a concrete policy for the growth of the school’s human and
professional capital in a transparent, innovative and effective manner. The Plan, therefore, in
addition to guiding the planning of schools and teachers, assumes a function of direction to
concretize the training proposals of the central and peripheral Administration, so as to make
the training interventions consistent and systematic and create a virtuous synergy between
choices possible and available resources. It therefore represents a renewed institutional
framework of in-service training, and not a simple set of administrative or management
requirements. In-service training becomes a “continuous learning environment”, ie a system
of opportunities for growth and professional development for the entire school community.
The professional growth of the personnel, the active participation in the cultural debate and
the concrete contribution to the innovation and the qualification of the educational system and
therefore of the Country system, represent as many conditions to return a renewed social
credibility to those who work in the school world.

The Plan is immediately implementable: it concretely directs the actions and the relative
resources made available by the various General Directorates of the Ministry starting from its
Ethnic, cultural and religious diversity is registered in our society: for the students and
students of the school system who experience it as a condition of minority and potential
marginalization, the presence of teachers able to understand them and make diversity an
extraordinary educational opportunity is essential. It is precisely the diversity of diversity,
therefore, that requires a concentration of resources and commitment to ensure that teachers
who want to acquire adequate knowledge to deal with a palette of situations with infinite
combinations find suitable opportunities and tools. In fact, Italy has an already vast
professional heritage: but no one is unaware that the challenge to prevent violent and
ideological degenerations commonly referred to as “radicalization” is played out (and lost, as
other countries show). For this reason we need an acquisition of the specific competences of
education to interculturality, an ability to give access to the language and to our national
culture which is by nature a welcoming and unifying factor, and to multiply the opportunities
to acquire specialized skills in the matter of religious pluralism, respect for affectivity,
isodidactic rights and empowerment.
The integration of foreign pupils and intercultural dialogue The quality and results of school
integration of students with foreign backgrounds largely depend on the professional skills of
teachers and managers of multicultural schools. Twenty years and more of educational and
organizational experiments, reflections on the actions carried out and their results have
developed a professional heritage and good practices that must be used to make the school
system an “expert system” in the educational integration of foreign students, in intercultural
education and in the development of “global citizenship” skills. Teacher training should not
be exclusively specialist, but also looks at the issues of intercultural education and global
citizenship, supports the richness and effectiveness of relations between schools and foreign
families, develops sensitivity and professional awareness regarding reception, peer education,
education and professional orientation. The main fields of interest are:
The specialist language teaching skills necessary to teach Italian to students, even those born
in Italy, who have a different mother tongue, not only as a linguistic first aid but correlated
with the enhancement of identity, the culture of belonging, the relationships between cultures,
of the comparison of values.
• the development of skills for all teachers in the team in order to jointly manage the
“personalized educational plans”. This means knowing how to co-decide the adaptation of
curricula according to the levels and progress of students’ linguistic skills, identifying the
indispensable disciplinary objectives and also the possible alternative tools to achieve them.
• The evaluation must be carried out by seeking a balance between the need for teachers to
adopt evaluation criteria that take into account the “necessary adaptation” of the school career
and the importance of ensuring consistent assessment paths for all.
•The development of cultural sensitivity and specific knowledge that can promote
intercultural education and global citizenship can be supported through: the coexistence of
multiple languages, the use of vehicular languages to facilitate communication, enhancement
of the contribution identity of the “heritage” languages, the creation of active occasions for
cultural exchange.

• The development of the knowledge and history of cultures through the creation of an
awareness of scientific, philosophical, artistic and doctrinal exchanges and the accumulation
within the school system of a larger plurilingual and pluricultural capital.
• The historical-religious competences necessary to understand each of the great communities
of faiths, their history, the history of their relationships and systems of expression of freedom
in the different historical-political contexts, which allow to have a discreet number in each
territorial area of teachers with adequate training in the multi-religious landscape;
• The development of critical thinking, of dialogue (intercultural and interreligious) of respect
and mutual understanding, fundamental to counter intolerance and extremism.
At the same time, the head teacher, in his function of promoting constitutionally protected
rights, has the task of guaranteeing the quality of the integration of all the students on the
organizational and administrative level. The main fields of training are: the acquisition of
legal and administrative skills, organizational and teaching skills, the ability to build positive
relationships with foreign families and students, the coordination and interaction of schools
with local authorities , the self-assessment of intercultural processes as a strategy for
reflection and improvement. Citizenship skills, in a broad sense In a broader sense, the
definition of conscious citizenship, both from a territorial point of view and in its necessary
global interpretation, must be increasingly inclusive of all the dimensions of citizenship: not
only of the cultural integration or education in the rule of law, but also the care of common
goods, environmental and food education, correct lifestyles, gender equality, dialogue
(intercultural and interreligious), “scientific citizenship”, the migration and media literacy.
The end point of this approach is an inclusive and modern idea of global citizenship.

10. Are there websites with specific information




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